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Myopia  |  Hyperopia  |  Astigmatism

What is Myopia?

​Myopia, or short-sightedness, is an eye condition where objects can be seen clearly up close, but objects further away appear blurred. Myopia occurs if the eyeball is too long or the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, has too much curvature. Most myopic eyes are healthy and are larger than normal - not that you'd see it, we are talking at a microscopic level. Some types of myopia are caused by excessive reading/screen use and lack of outdoor time.


​Myopia is becoming  more common and is generally first picked up in school-age children who may frown or screw up their eyes in an effort to see. Short-sighted children may also hold reading material quite close or sit very close to the television. Many are avid readers.


While myopia is often inherited, it can also occur in individuals with no prior family history of myopia. It is also related to excess near work and indoor time. Some myopia is preventable but it does not simply go away. Because the eye continues to grow during childhood and adolescence, myopia typically increases until about 25 years of age when it levels off. Large degrees of myopia are linked to increased risk of eye diseases. Avoiding or limiting myopia is a very good strategy. 


The good news is that eyes with myopia are capable of good vision.Treatment may involve both optical correction such as glasses, contact lenses, orthokeratology and lifestyle interventions such as balancing indoor and outdoor time and visual hygiene


Your Visique Optometrist will advise you as to which treatment options are most suitable for you.​

What is Hyperopia?

​Hyperopia, or farsightedness, occurs when distant objects can be seen clearly, but those close up require excessive effort to come into focus properly. In most cases, it occurs when the eyeball is smaller than normal. Because of this, the eye cannot focus easily or may have poor teaming.

People with hyperopia may experience:​

  • Poor vision unless they make an effort to see

  • Blurred vision when looking up from close work

  • Frequent eyestrain

  • Headaches and poor concentration

  • Occasional double vision

  • In children, progress at school may lag or not match their efforts.


Eye conditions caused by poorly focused vision are usually inherited. This may be compounded by poor development of visual skills.

Hyperopia is a common eye condition in children. Since the size of the eye is the main factor that determines focus, and since the eyes continue growing until about 25 years, long-sighted eyes tend to become less long-sighted as a child grows older. However, all eyes slowly lose their ability to focus with age. Because of this, most people need reading glasses at some stage in their 40s.


Eyes with hyperopia are capable of good vision with glasses or contact lenses. Poor visual development or skills benefit from vision therapy.


Your Visique optometrist can help people with hyperopia to see more comfortably and clearly with glasses, contact lenses or vision development options.

What is Astigmatism?

​Astigmatism is a very common eye condition that causes blurred vision either close up or at a distance. This is because the cornea, the clear-fronted cover of the eye, is irregularly shaped. We often explain this more easily by just saying the eye isn't round, it's rugby ball shaped.

Whether you are long-sighted (hyperopic) or short-sighted (myopic), you can still have some degree of astigmatism.


Slight astigmatism doesn't usually affect vision or require correcting, however, larger amounts of astigmatism cause distorted or blurred vision, discomfort and headache. Because of the astigmatism blur, your eyes work harder which can make them tired.

The symptoms can range; some people get headaches, others just plain old blurred vision. Astigmatism doesn't just affect your near or far vision, it will affect both. Astigmatism can also result in tired eyes, especially if you are concentrating on anything for a long period of time. This may be doing things that require looking up close (like working at a computer or studying) or at a distance (such as driving).


Glasses or contact lenses can be used to correct astigmatism. In some cases, orthokeratology may be an alternative treatment. Vision will be clearer and more comfortable if astigmatism is corrected - even if a person feels they see quite well. Your Visique optometrist can easily identify astigmatism in a routine eye test, and will talk you through benefits of correcting it. Some forms may also be reduced with specific eye exercises or posture changes.


Your Visique Optometrist can help people with astigmatism to see more clearly and comfortably and will advise which treatment is most suitable for you.

Happy Man
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